Useful information and links.


PRP Instructional Video 

PRP White Paper

J Corey Orava, DVM

Download >>


Selected References for PRP
PRP For Joints

Blanke et al.  Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions.  Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal 2015;5 (3):162-166.

Carmona et al.  Autologous Platelet Concentrates as a Treatment of Horses with Osteoarthritis: A Preliminary Pilot Clinical Study.  J Eq Vet Sci 2007; 27(4)

Franklin & Cook.  Prospective trial of autologous conditioned plasma versus hyaluronan plus corticosteroid for elbow osteoarthritis in dogs.  Can Vet J 2013;54:881–884

Kazemi & Fakhrjou.  Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Plasma (L-PRP) Versus Leukocyte and Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) For Articular Cartilage Repair of the Knee: A Comparative Evaluation in an Animal Model.  Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 October; 17(10): e19594.

Shen et al.  The temporal effect of platelet-rich plasma on pain and physical function in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.  J Orthop Surg Res 2017, 12:16

PRP for Tendons/Ligaments

Geburek et al. Effect of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters in equine naturally occurring superficial digital flexor tendinopathies – a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial.  BMC Vet Res (2016) 12:191

Ho et al.  Single ultrasound-guided platelet-rich plasma injection for treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy in dogs. Can Vet J, 2015 Aug;56(8):845-9.

Waselau et al.  Intralesional injection of platelet-rich plasma followed by controlled exercise for treatment of midbody suspensory ligament desmitis in Standardbred racehorses.  J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232:1515–1520

Xie et al.  Platelet-rich plasma enhances autograft revascularization and reinnervation in a dog model of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.  J Surg Res. 2013 Jul;183(1):214-22.

Zuffova et al.  Platelet rich plasma treatment of superficial digital flexor tendon lesions in racing Thoroughbreds.  Veterinarni Medicina, 58, 2013: (4): 230–239

PRP for Theriogenology

Marini et al. Effects of platelet-rich plasma in a model of bovine endometrial inflammation in vitro.  Reproduc Bio Endocrin (2016) 14:58

Oz et al. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016 Mar 29.

Reghini et al.  Inflammatory response in chronic degenerative endometritis mares treated with platelet-rich plasma. Theriogenology. 2016 Feb 18.

Segabinazzi et al.  Uterine clinical findings, fertility rate, leucocyte migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue of susceptible mares treated with platelet-rich plasma before and after AI.  Theriogenology. 2017 Aug 12;104:120-126.

PRP for Wound Healing

Carter et al.  Platelet-rich plasma gel promotes differentiation and regeneration during equine wound healing.  Exp Molec Path 74 (2003) 244–255

De Souza et al.  Immunohistochemical Expression of Collagens in the Skin of Horses Treated with Leukocyte-Poor Platelet-Rich Plasma. BioMed Res Int 2015, Article ID 893485

Jee et al.  Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma application on cutaneous wound healing in dogs.  J Vet Sci 2016, 17(1), 79-87.

Instructions For Converting RCF (G-Force) to RPM:

  • Measure the spin radius by holding a ruler parallel to the counter top and measuring the horizontal distance from center of rotation   usually a bolt in the middle of the rotor to the far tip of a bucket
  • Enter this in the “Rotor Radius” field
  • Enter the desired RCF (aka G-Forces)
  • Hit “Calculate RPM”
  • Read the number that appears in the “RPM” box and use this setting on your centrifuge

Additional Notes:

Centrifuges are dirty and there is no way to sterilize them.  But did you know that most centrifuge buckets can be autoclaved?  If you are particular about sterility (and we know you are), consider sterilizing your buckets prior to each PRP process. Please remember to ensure with the centrifuge manufacturer that your bucket is autoclavable.

If your centrifuge has a brake, have it turned as low as possible —an aggressive brake WILL disrupt the PRP.

Rotor Calculator

Rotor Radius  cm

RPM  rpm

RCF  g



PRP Spin Composition

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PRP Spin Composition

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PRF Instructional Video 

PRF White Paper

J Corey Orava, DVM

Download >>


PRF Case Report Feline Bite Wound

Dr Cantamessa

Download >>


Selected References for PRF
FAQ What if I am not familiar with PRF?
  • Enso Discoveries has detailed instructional videos available 
  • Enso Discoveries offers wet labs, video conferencing, or personal visits

Is it expensive to get started?
  • No capital investment typically required 
  • If you need a centrifuge we have either a mobile 12v or 120v available) 
  • Each Rebound PRF kit includes all supplies needed to perform procedure 
How can you offer so much for so little? Can I trust the quality?

YES! Because we design, university-validate, and manufacture our own products, there are no large fees being paid to human-focused companies for veterinary rights. 

Useful Injection Resources

Injection Aid Video

Injection Aides

Small/cat 23ga 1” 1 ml Medium 22ga 1.5” 1.0 – 1.5 ml Large 22ga 2.5” 1.5 – 2.0 ml Giant 22ga 2.5” 2.0 – 3.0 ml

  • Position animal on its’ back 
  • Palpate tip of patella and tibial tuberosity 
  • Palpate patellar tendon 
  • Insert needle beside (either medial or lateral) patellar tendon halfway between the tip of the patella and the tibial tuberosity 
  • Needle is started perpendicular to the skin, once through the skin angle sagittal (i.e. towards the midline) and proximal (see red arrow below) 
  • Advance the needle in one continuous motion until you hit bone (distal femur) 
  • In very small animals it is easy to pass the needle through the back of the joint space – angling the needle proximal should prevent this 

Small/cat 25ga 1” … 0.5 ml Medium 23ga 1.5” …

  • Cat/dog in lateral recumbency 
  • palpate spine of scapula, follow to acromion process (absent in feline) 
  • insert needle about 0.5 to 1cm distal to acromion process (refer to lateral x-rays: 
  • measure distance from tip of process to joint space) 
  • needle inserted vertically (perpendicular to table) and in-line with spine of scapula 

Small/cat 25ga 1” 0.5 ml Medium 23ga 1” 0.5 – 1.0 ml Large 22ga 1.5” 1.0 – 1.5 ml Giant 22ga 2.5” 1.5 – 2.0 ml

  • Can be done medially or laterally 
  • 3 approaches for each side (same landmarks whether medial or lateral) 
  • Alternative is to practice with skeleton model – fold towel over a few times, lay folded towel over model and inject joint through the towel 
  • 1st approach – inject distal to epicondyle (black circle), in 50lb dog typically would be about 1cm from the middle of the epicondyle (can measure distance on x-rays), place rolled towel (or similar) under humerus to help open joint space, needle vertical or hub tilted slightly (15*) towards paw, use a small gauge needle (e.g. 25ga – 1”) and walk needle into joint space – joint fluid not common 
  • 2nd approach – inject between epicondyle and point of olecranon (closer to olecranon), palpate for neurovascular bundle and insert needle beside (usually needle is caudal to nerve), needle angled about 45o (hub towards point of olecranon), visualize a 2-D plane that passes through epicondyle and point of olecranon – keep the tip of the needle AND the hub of the needle in this plane, the needle follows olecranon into joint space – joint fluid more common 
  • 3rd approach – ONLY do if animal is comfortable placing elbow in full flexion. Needle is insert just proximal to olecranon processes then inserted toward the middle of the joint, directly under the epicondyle 

Small/cat 23ga 1” 1 ml Medium 22ga 1.5” 1.0 – 1.5 ml Large 22ga 2.5” 1.5 – 2.0 ml Giant 22ga 2.5” 2.0 – 3.0 ml

  •  Animal in lateral recumbency with leg approximately perpendicular to spine 

    • Place finger tips on greater trochanter (GT) 
    • Walk finger tips towards spine until index finger falls off end 
    • Insert needle off end of GT 
    • Aspirate for fluid or attempt to inject 
    • If joint is not encountered, walk needle tip towards GT then away from GT

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